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So documents written in the first year that Charles II was on the throne would actually be styled 12 Charles II. Jones (eds), ‘A Handbook of Dates: For Students of British History’ (Cambridge University Press, revd 2000).

For more information about dates (including saints days, regnal years, religious festivals and terms of the law courts) see C. Top of page Arabic numerals were not used in England until the 16th century, and even after then Roman numerals continued to be used.

England therefore remained 10 days behind the New Style Calendar.

By 1752 England was some 11 days behind other European countries.

‘1 Elizabeth I’ means the first year of the reign of Elizabeth I.

Elizabeth I came to the throne on 17 November 1558, so 1 Elizabeth I means some time between 17 November 1558 and 16 November 1559.

Most people today are still familiar with the classic Roman numerals.

Be aware, however, that you will find them represented in a slightly different way in documents written in English. A ‘1’ by itself, or at the end of a number, was usually represented by a ‘j’.

Although he came to the throne in May 1660, after the Commonwealth period, he actually calculated his regnal year as beginning on 30 January 1649, the date of the execution of his father Charles I.

The well-known Berlin street Unter den Linden is a cognate of 'under-Lyme' Newcastle is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, as it grew up around the 12th century castle, but it must have rapidly become a place of importance because a charter, known only through a reference in another charter to Preston, was given to the town by Henry II in 1173.

The new castle was built to supersede an older fortress at Chesterton about 2 miles (3 km) to the north, the ruins of which were visible up to the end of the 16th century.

40 perches = 1 rood 4 roods = 1 acre Confusion arises from the fact that a perch is also a measurement of length.

A perch, pole and rod are all terms for a measurement of length of approximately 5 metres (5.5 yards).

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