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So-called "vegetable ivory", made from the Tagua Nut, known as the "ivory nut", has been used for over two-hundred years by craftsmen to make dice, dominoes, and chess pieces.

The "ivory nut" is close-grained and very hard, and its structure, colour, and grain is similar to that of mammal ivory, though slightly softer.

In 1856 came the invention of the next manmade plastic material, first called Parkesine and now known as Xylonite or Celluloid.

It was originally manufactured by a company called Parkes in Birmingham and was used to make dominoes for a while, but didn't last, probably due to the fact it was highly inflammable..

By the mid 19th-century, European dominoes were still commonly manufactured from slim narrow pieces of bone, but now with an ebony wood back which was glued and then fixed to the bone with a brass pin (known as a spinner) through the centre of the tile.

This development was probably due to a lack of suitable thick pieces of animal bone, requiring the ebony layer to strengthen the tile, which made it possible to stand dominoes on their edges.

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Throughout history, Kush was the closest trade partner to Egypt.Kushite elephants were extensively used by the ancient armies of Europe and the Near East.The Egyptian city of Elephantine, comes from the Greek word for elephant, and was named so by the Ptolemies since elephants, brought from Sudan, were sold and exported there.Elephant tusks were important to the economy of Kush.Thus, it is arguable that Kush was the primary exporter of ivory in the ancient world.

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